Abridged Richard II/#1/Honor/Act 1, Scene 1

Shakespeare opens the play with the thirty-two year old
King Richard II calling forward his thirty-year old cousin, Henry Bolingbroke,
along with a Thomas Mowbray, both being accused by the king of complicity in
the death of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, the king’s youngest uncle.  Both Bolingbroke and Mowbray accuse the other
of shameful misconduct, the king saying they are both “full of ire, in rage
deaf as the sea, hasty as fire.”  The
year is 1399.  Bolingbroke (the future
King Henry IV) calls Mowbray “a traitor and miscreant.”  Mowbray defends himself with style and class,
saying of Bolingbroke that “most falsely doth he lie.”  Bolingbroke responds “Pale trembling coward,
there I throw my gage.”  Mowbray responds
“I take it up, and by that sword I swear I’ll answer thee in any fair
degree.”  Bolingbroke counters “He did
plot the Duke of Gloucester’s death.”
Mowbray cries “For Gloucester’s death, I slew him not.”  Richard II breaks up the vindictive
accusations, saying “Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be ruled by me.”  In his final defense, Mowbray says to the
king “My life thou shalt command, but my fair name thou shalt not have.  Mine honor is my life; both grow in one.  Take honor from me, and my life is done.  Dear my liege, mine honor let me try.  In that I live, and for that will I

Abridged Richard II/#2/Grief/Act 1, Scene 2

John of Gaunt, the late King Edward III’s fourth son, is
Bolingbroke’s father and Richard II’s uncle. He’s now late in his life.  He’s been a hero to the English.  He is now a tired, discouraged, sick, older man.  The Duchess of Gloucester looks to Gaunt for
help, hoping to avenge the murder of her husband.  But when she asks him for help, he responds
“Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven.” The comment irritates her.  She angrily says “Hath brotherhood in thee no
sharper spur?  Hath love in thy old blood
no living fire?”  Referring to her
husband, she cries “Ah, Gaunt, his blood was thine!  Though thou livest and breathest, yet art
thou slain in him, the model of thy father’s life.”  English society at that time considered the
king God’s agent in England.  John of
Gaunt responds to the Duchess’ plea, saying “God’s is the quarrel; for God’s
substitute hath caused his death.  If
wrongfully, let heaven revenge, for I may never lift an angry arm against His
minister.”  The Duchess asks “Where,
then, alas, may I complain myself?”
Gaunt replies “To God, the widow’s champion and defense.”  She says “Farewell, old Gaunt.  Thy sometime brother’s wife with her
companion, grief, must end her life.  The
last leave of thee takes my weeping eye.”
We’ll soon learn that she has

Abridged Richard II/#3/Advice/Act 1, Scene 3

Richard II decides that a duel at Coventry is the best
way to resolve the conflict between Bolingbroke and Mowbray.  The king says “Your swords and lances shall
arbitrate the swelling difference of your settled hate.”  Just as the duel is to begin, the king
dramatically changes his mind, sparing the lives of both men.  The king says “Since our kingdom’s earth
should not be soiled with that dear brood which it hath fostered, we banish you
our territories.”  You, cousin Henry,
upon pain of life, till six summers have enriched our fields, shall not regreet
our fair dominions.”  He banishes him to
France.  Richard II then turns to
Mowbray, banishing him from England for life, saying “For thee remains a
heavier doom, which I with some unwillingness pronounce.  The hopeless word of ‘never to return’
breathe I against thee, upon pain of life.”
John of Gaunt offers his disheartened son timeless advice, saying “Thy
grief is but the absence for a time.  All
places that the eye of heaven visits are to a wise man ports and happy
havens.  There is no virtue like
necessity.  Suppose the singing birds
musicians, the flowers fair ladies and thy steps no more than a delightful
dance.  Gnarling sorrow hath less power
to bite the man that mocks at it and sets it light.”

Abridged Richard II/#4/Insight/Act 2, Scene 1.1

John of Gaunt turns seriously ill.  His son, Henry Bolingbroke, leaves for France,
Bolingbroke, as we say, having been exiled from England for six years.  John of Gaunt, as said, was Edward III’s
fourth son; Edmund of Langley, better known here as the Duke of York, was the
late king’s fifth son.  With John of
Gaunt near death, York encourages him to rest comfortably, saying “Vex not
yourself, nor strive not with your breath, for all in vain comes counsel to his
ear.”  But John of Gaunt doesn’t really
listen to his brother.  He wants desperately
to provide “counsel to the king’s ear.”
Gaunt says “They say the tongues of dying men enforce attention like
deep harmony.  They breathe truth that
breathe their words in pain.  More are
men’s ends marked than their lives before.
The setting sun, and music at the close, as the last taste of sweets, is
sweetest last, writ in remembrance more than things long past.  Though Richard my life’s counsel would not
hear, my death’s sad tale may yet undeaf his ear.”  York responds: “No, the open ear of youth
listens to reports of fashions in proud Italy, whose manners still our tardy-apish
nation limps after in base imitation.
Direct not him whose way himself will choose.”

Abridged Richard II/#5/Pride/Act 2, Scene 1.2

Ignoring his brother York’s counsel, John of Gaunt cries
out “Methinks I am a prophet new inspired.”
Referring to Richard II, Gaunt says “His rash fierce blaze of riot
cannot last, for violent fires soon burn out themselves; small showers last
long, but sudden storms are short.”  He
then proceeds to tell us how proud he is of his homeland.  “This other Eden, demi-paradise, this
fortress built by Nature for herself against infection and the hand of war,
this happy breed of men, this little world, this precious stone set in the
silver sea, as a moat defensive to a house, this blessed plot, this earth, this
realm, this England.  This land of such
dear souls, this dear dear land, is now leased out like a tenement.  England, bound in with the triumphant sea,
whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege of wat’ry Neptune, is now bound
in with shame.  Ah, would the scandal
vanish with my life, how happy then were my ensuing death!”  The king enters.  York counsels his brother to “deal mildly
with his youth.”  The king greets Gaunt
with “How is ‘t with aged Gaunt?”  Gaunt
responds “Old Gaunt indeed, and gaunt in being old.  I mock my name, great king, to flatter
thee.”  Richard II says: “Should dying
men flatter with those that live?”  Gaunt
replies “O, no, thou diest, though I the sicker be.”  Richard says “I am in health, I breathe, and
see thee ill.”  Gaunt responds “I see
thee ill.  Thy deathbed is no lesser than
thy land, wherein thou liest in reputation sick.”  As Gaunt is then carried off the stage,
Richard II cries out to him “Let them die that age and sullens have, for both
hast thou, and both become the grave.”

Abridged Richard II/#6/Plead/Act 2, Scene 1.3

The Earl of Northumberland, a friend of John of Gaunt’s,
enters to tell us of Gaunt’s death, telling us “His tongue is now a stringless
instrument; words, life and all, old Lancaster hath spent.”  John of Gaunt was the Duke of Lancaster.  York says “Though death be poor, it ends a
mortal woe.”  Richard II says “The ripest
fruit first falls, and so doth he; his time is spent, our pilgrimage must be.  So much for that.  Now for our Irish wars.  Towards our assistance we do seize to us the
plate, coin, revenues and gold and jewels our uncle Gaunt did stand
possessed.”  The king takes possession of
Gaunt’s assets and plans to use them to finance his war effort with
Ireland.  York turns to the king and says
“How long shall I be patient?  Ah, how
long shall tender duty make me suffer wrong?
I am the last of noble Edward’s sons, of whom thy father, Prince of
Wales, was first.  Is not Gaunt dead?  And doth not Bolingbroke live?  Was not Gaunt just?  And is not Harry true?  Did not the one deserve to have an heir?  If you do wrongfully seize Bolingbroke’s
rights, you pluck a thousand dangers on your head, you lose a thousand
well-disposed hearts, and prick my tender patience to those thoughts which
honor and allegiance cannot think.”
Richard II responds “Think what you will, we seize into our hands his
plate, his goods, his money, and his lands.”
York says “I’ll not be by the while.
My liege, farewell.”  He
exits.  Richard turns to one of his
supporters, saying “Tomorrow next we will for Ireland.  Tomorrow must we part.  Be merry, for our time of stay is

Abridged Richard II/#7/Grief/Act 2, Scene 2

Henry Percy, known here as Northumberland, a key
Bolingbroke supporter, lets us know that Bolingbroke and others “all well
furnished by the Duke of Brittany with eight tall ships, three thousand men of
war, are making hither with all due expedience and shortly mean to touch our
northern shore.  Come away with me
quickly to Ravenspurgh.”  The group of
Bolingbroke supporters leaves for northern England.  Meanwhile, Bushy, an aide to the king, says
to the queen, “Madam, your Majesty is too much sad.”  She responds “Yet I know no cause why I
should welcome such a guest as grief.”
Bushy counsels “Each substance of a grief hath twenty shadows which
shows like grief itself but is not so.
Sorrow’s eyes divide one thing into many objects that show nothing but
confusion.  So your sweet Majesty, find
shapes of grief more than himself to wail, which are but shadows of what is
not.  Then, thrice-gracious queen, more
than your lord’s departure weep not.”
Green, another aide to the king, enters, saying “The banished
Bolingbroke repeals himself and with weapons is safe arrived at
Ravensburgh.”  The queen says “Now God in
heaven forbid!”  Green adds “And that is
worse, the Lord Northumberland and others are fled to him.”  York enters and says to the queen “Your
husband has gone to save far off whilst others come to make him lose at
home.  The queen says “Who will hinder
me?  I will despair.”

Abridged Richard II/#8/Anger/Act 2, Scene 3.1

Moving south from Ravensburgh, Bolingbroke asks “How far
is it, my lord, to Berkeley now?”
Northumberland responds “Believe me, noble lord, I am a stranger here in
Gloucestershire.”  Harry Percy
enters.  Northumberland exclaims “It is
my son, young Harry Percy.”  Harry tells
his father that his father’s brother, Worcester, has “broken his staff of
office, and dispersed the household of the king.”  Young Percy turns to Bolingbroke saying “My
gracious lord, I tender you my service.”
Northumberland asks his son “How far is it to Berkeley?”  Percy responds “There stands the castle by
yon tuft of trees, manned with three hundred men, as I have heard, and in it
are the Lords of York, Berkeley and Seymour.”
York enters.  Bolingbroke says “My
gracious uncle —–“   York cries “Grace
me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle. Why have those banished and forbidden legs
dared once to touch a dust of England’s ground?
Com’st thou because the anointed king is hence?  Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind and
in my loyal bosom lies his power.  O,
then, how quickly should this arm of mine, now prisoner to the palsy, chastise
thee and minister correction to thy fault!”
Bolingbroke responds “My gracious uncle, let me know my fault.”

Abridged Richard II/#9/Deference/Act 2, Scene 3.2

York responds to Bolingbroke “Thou art a banished man,
and here art come.”  Bolingbroke replies
“As I was banished, I was banished Hereford, but as I come, I come as
Lancaster.  You are my father, for
methinks in you I see old Gaunt alive.
Wherefore was I born? I am denied to sue my livery here.  My father’s goods are all seized and
sold.  What would you have me do?  I am subject, and I challenge law.  Attorneys are denied me.  I lay my claim to my inheritance of free
descent.”  John of Gaunt was the Duke of
Lancaster.  York replies “Be it known
unto you I do remain as neuter.  So fare
you well —- unless you please to enter in the castle and there repose you for
this night.”  Bolingbroke says “An offer,
uncle, which we will accept.  But we must
win your Grace to go with us to Bristow Castle.”  York answers “It may be I will go with
you.  Things past redress are now with me
past care.”  Richard II has now returned
from Ireland.  A Welsh captain is heard
to say “And yet we hear no tidings from the king.  Therefore we will disperse ourselves.  ‘Tis thought the king is dead.  We will not stay.”  The Welshmen were among the king’s most loyal
supporters.  On his return to England,
the king has retreated to Flint castle.

Abridged Richard II/#10/Death/Act 3, Scene 1

Bolingbroke and his forces have arrived at Bristow
castle.  Bolingbroke calls forward Bushy
and Green, two of the king’s key advisers.
Bolingbroke says “Bushy and Green, I will not disturb your souls, since
presently your souls must part your bodies.
I will unfold some causes of your deaths.  You have misled a prince and a royal
king.  You have stained the beauty of a
fair queen’s cheeks with tears drawn from her eyes by your foul wrongs.  Myself, a prince by fortune of my birth, near
to the king in blood till you did make him misinterpret me, having sighed my
English breath in foreign clouds, eating bitter bread of banishment, whilst you
have fed upon my territories.  This and
much more condemns you to the death.”
Bushy responds “More welcome is the stroke of death to me than
Bolingbroke to England.”  Green says “My
comfort is that heaven will take our souls.”
The two men are hanged.  Bolingbroke
says “Come, lords, away.  To fight with
Glendower and his complices.”  Glendower
is a leader of the Welsh and plays a large role in Henry IV, Part 1.